A patent titled Data Synchronization Protocol that was recently filed by Apple was published today. The patent describes a method of synching data between a client device anda server.
The patent explains that a sync session is initiated by negotiating a sync mode between the client device and the server. Below is the description of the function:
Among other things, techniques and systems are disclosed for syncing data between a client device and a server. Synchronizing data includes initiating a sync session by negotiating a sync mode between a client device and a server for each of one or more dataclasses. A status code is generated based on a result of the negotiating. Based on the generated status code, the client device and the server exchanges one or more data items to be updated for the one or more dataclasses using the negotiated sync mode for each dataclass. The exchanged one or more data items are updated at the client device or the server The updated one or more data items are committed at the client or the server.
As with many patents and their filings, it's a bit obscure in its wording. Things a painted somewhat broadly, but this may be similar to what we already do with our iOS devices when we physically plug them into a computer. However, it would be nice to be able to sync our data wirelessly through a server. The following seems to indicate such a possibility:
DETAILED DESCRIPTION 
Techniques and systems are disclosed for enabling over-the-air (OTA) synchronization between a client device and a server. In particular, a wireless structured data synchronization protocol can enable a client device to interface with a server to synchronize various data. Such protocol can be used to synchronize Mac.RTM. Operating System X (OS X) SyncServices data between a handheld device such as the iPhone.RTM. and a server such as the .Mac.RTM. server, for example.
If wireless syncing were made available, it would make for a very improved user experience for iOS users. Though it would also be nice to be able to sync from a remote server in case that is ever needed. Of course there is no telling whether a patent will ever be used.